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Menstrual Factors, Reproductive Factors 
and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis

Yue Zhang ; Zhihua Yin ; Li Shen ; Yan Wan ; Baosen Zhou

Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer, 01 December 2012, Vol.15(12), pp.701-719 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    Menstrual Factors, Reproductive Factors 
and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis
  • Author/Creator: Yue Zhang ; Zhihua Yin ; Li Shen ; Yan Wan ; Baosen Zhou
  • Language: Chinese
  • Subjects: Lung Neoplasms ; Age At Menarche ; Length of Menstrual Cycle ; Female Sex Hormones ; Medicine
  • Is Part Of: Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer, 01 December 2012, Vol.15(12), pp.701-719
  • Description: Background and objective Epidemiological studies have suggested that menstrual and reproductive factors may influence lung cancer risk, but the results are controversial. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis aiming to examine the associations of lung cancer in women with menstrual and reproductive factors. 
Methods Relevant studies were searched from PubMed database, CNKI, WANFANG DATA and VIP INFORMATION up to January 2012, with no language restrictions. References listed from selected papers were also reviewed. We included studies that reported the estimates of relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between menstrual and reproductive factors and lung cancer risk. The pooled RRs were calculated after the heterogeneity test with the software Stata 11, and publication bias and sensitivity were evaluated at the same time. 
Results Twenty-five articles, representing 24 independent studies, were included in this meta-analysis. Older age at menarche in North America women (RR=0.83; 95%CI: 0.73-0.94) was associated with a significant decreased risk of lung cancer. Longer length of menstrual cycle was also associated with decreased lung cancer risk (RR=0.72; 95%CI: 0.57-0.90). Other exposures were not significantly associated. 
Conclusions Our analysis provides evidence of the hypothesis that female sex hormones influence the risk of lung cancer in women, yet additional studies are warranted to extend this finding and to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
  • Identifier: ISSN: 1009-3419 ; E-ISSN: 1999-6187 ; DOI: 10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2012.12.04