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Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n–3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

Jakobsen, Marianne U ; Madsen, Lise ; Skjøth, Flemming ; Berentzen, Tina L ; Halkjær, Jytte ; Tjønneland, Anne ; Schmidt, Erik B ; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia ; Kristiansen, Karsten ; Overvad, Kim

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2017, Vol. 105(5), pp.1148-1157 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n–3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference
  • Author/Creator: Jakobsen, Marianne U ; Madsen, Lise ; Skjøth, Flemming ; Berentzen, Tina L ; Halkjær, Jytte ; Tjønneland, Anne ; Schmidt, Erik B ; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia ; Kristiansen, Karsten ; Overvad, Kim
  • Subjects: Adipose Tissue ; Carbohydrates ; Cohort Study ; Dietary Intake ; Follow - Up Study ; Obesity ; Omega - 3 Fatty Acids ; Proteins
  • Is Part Of: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2017, Vol. 105(5), pp.1148-1157
  • Description: Background: Adding long-chain n–3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited. Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n–3 PUFAs and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference in humans. Effect modification by the carbohydrate:protein ratio and glycemic index was also investigated. Design: A total of 29,152 participants included in the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort were followed. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a validated 192-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Adipose tissue content of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography in a random sample of the cohort ( n = 1660). Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and 5 y later. Associations were investigated with the use of a linear regression model. Results: For high (1.22 g/d) compared with low (0.28 g/d) total n–3 PUFA intake, the difference in 5-y weight change was 147.6 g (95% CI: −42.3, 337.5 g); P -trend = 0.088. No associations between the individual n–3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid were observed. Intake of n–3 PUFAs was not associated with a 5-y change in waist circumference. For high (0.16%) compared with low (0.06%) adipose tissue content of EPA, the difference in 5-y weight change was −649.6 g (95% CI: −1254.2, −44.9 g); P -trend = 0.027. No associations between total n–3 PUFA, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid and 5-y weight change were observed. Adipose tissue content of n–3 PUFAs was not associated with 5-y change in waist circumference. No effect modification by carbohydrate:protein ratio or glycemic index was found. Conclusion: Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n–3 PUFAs were neither consistently nor appreciably associated with change in body weight or waist circumference.
  • Identifier: ISSN: 0002-9165 ; E-ISSN: 1938-3207 ; DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.140079