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Associations of Fine Particulate Matter Species with Mortality in the United States: A Multicity Time-Series Analysis

Dai, Lingzhen ; Zanobetti, Antonella ; Koutrakis, Petros ; Schwartz, Joel D

Environmental Health Perspectives, 2014, Vol.122(8), p.837-842 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    Associations of Fine Particulate Matter Species with Mortality in the United States: A Multicity Time-Series Analysis
  • Author/Creator: Dai, Lingzhen ; Zanobetti, Antonella ; Koutrakis, Petros ; Schwartz, Joel D
  • Subjects: Research
  • Is Part Of: Environmental Health Perspectives, 2014, Vol.122(8), p.837-842
  • Description: Background: Epidemiological studies have examined the association between PM 2.5 and mortality, but uncertainty remains about the seasonal variations in PM 2.5 -related effects and the relative importance of species. Objectives: We estimated the effects of PM 2.5 species on mortality and how infiltration rates may modify the association. Methods: Using city–season specific Poisson regression, we estimated PM 2.5 effects on approximately 4.5 million deaths for all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and respiratory diseases in 75 U.S. cities for 2000–2006. We added interaction terms between PM 2.5 and monthly average species-to-PM 2.5 proportions of individual species to determine the relative toxicity of each species. We combined results across cities using multivariate meta-regression, and controlled for infiltration. Results: We estimated a 1.18% (95% CI: 0.93, 1.44%) increase in all-cause mortality, a 1.03% (95% CI: 0.65, 1.41%) increase in CVD, a 1.22% (95% CI: 0.62, 1.82%) increase in MI, a 1.76% (95% CI: 1.01, 2.52%) increase in stroke, and a 1.71% (95% CI: 1.06, 2.35%) increase in respiratory deaths in association with a 10-μg/m 3 increase in 2-day averaged PM 2.5 concentration. The associations were largest in the spring. Silicon, calcium, and sulfur were associated with more all-cause mortality, whereas sulfur was related to more respiratory deaths. County-level smoking and alcohol were associated with larger estimated PM 2.5 effects. Conclusions: Our study showed an increased risk of mortality associated with PM 2.5 , which varied with seasons and species. The results suggest that mass alone might not be sufficient to evaluate the health effects of particles. Citation: Dai L, Zanobetti A, Koutrakis P, Schwartz JD. 2014. Associations of fine particulate matter species with mortality in the United States: a multicity time-series analysis. Environ Health Perspect 122:837–842;  http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307568
  • Identifier: ISSN: 0091-6765 ; E-ISSN: 1552-9924 ; DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1307568 ; PMCID: 4123030 ; PMID: 24800826